Criterion Classification I

old fiathful lobby

photos above & below Jim Peaco, courtesy National Park Service.

exterior view of old faithful inn

The Old Faithful Inn Yellowstone NP 1903
Classification I
Location:
Upper Geyser Basin
Theme: National Park Rustic or "Parkitecture" log cabin with added rooms.
Hotel Structure: 7-story central log "cabin" structure with south, east, and west wings. Original "Old House" is log frame on stone & concrete foundation with load bearing log walls on 1st story, milled lumber and log frame on upper stories. Wood shingle sheathing on exterior; gabled roof rises 6-stories. Original east and west wings on Old House are 3 1/2 stories. Additions built of alternate materials: East wing is 3-stories, wood frame construction, cedar shingles. West wing is 4-stories, wood frame construction on conrete foundation, cedar shingles, flat roof, simulated mansard style.
Original Architect: Robert Reamer
Construction: The Yellowstone Park Association, a subsidiary of the Northern Pacific Railway.
Original Cost: Old House, $140,000. Furnishings approximately $25,000.


Known Timeline:
Upper Geyser Basin Hotel constructed, 1884
Upper Geyser Basin Hotel destroyed by fire, November 1894
FJ Haynes receives approval to build cabins (never built), 1896
Yellowstone Park Association receives approval to build hotel, 1898
New Upper Geyser Basin Hotel design submitted by A.W. Spalding, June 1901
Construction begins, 1903
Old House with dining wing, original east & west lodging wings completed, 1904
100 room East Wing addition, 1913-14
Employee Pub (now carpentry shop) constructed, 1913
Lobby guest room converted into art gallery, 1915
Dining room expanded, 1922
Girls Dormitory constructed, 1922
Portions of original red roof replaced, 1923
Registration desk relocated to northeast corner, 1923
2 lobby guest rooms removed for bellhop's desk, 1923
Utility building (plumbing, electrical) constructed, 1925
Old Pumphouse constructed, 1925
Caretaker's House constructed, 1925
Employee laundry building constructed, 1925
Laundry Manager's House constructed, 1926
Porte-cochere extended and partially enclosed, 1927
150 room West Wing addition, 1927
Boiler house & laundry building constructed, 1929
Old House roof repainted red, 1932
Bear Pit cocktail lounge constructed, 1933
Bark peeled & logs treated in lobby, 1940
Dining room floor replaced, 1940
Timbers added to Old House truss system, 1943
Old House roof & original lodging wings reshingled, 1947-48
Sprinkler system & fire safety doors added, 1947
Geyser spotlights removed from widow's walk, 1948
Audited occupancy 363 rooms, 1949
Audited occupancy 338 rooms, 1951
Dining wing reshingled, 1953
Fireplaces & chimneys damaged in earthquake, August 17, 1959
Complete plumbing overhaul, 1960-65
Bear Pit converted to coffee shop, 1962
Indian art shop added to lobby, 1964
Yellowstone Park Company sold to Goldfield Corporation, 1966
Yellowstone Park Company sold to General Host, Inc., 1967
Some windows blocked off in dining room, 1968
Lobby logs clear varnished (7 stories), 1971
Major guest room renovations, 1975-77
Yellowstone Park Company sold to United States government, 1976
Concession awarded to TWA Services, 1979
Old House roof reshingled, circa 1980
Fire escapes added to expansion wings, 1980
10 year concession awarded to TWA Services, 1981
Kitchen remodeled, 1981-82
Laundry Manager's house moved, converted to stable activity building, 1983
Firefighters & volunteers save structure from North Fork Fire, September 7, 1988
Additional 10 year concession awarded to TWA Services, 1991
Guest rooms renovated in East and West additions, 1998-99
Current Occupancy: 92 hotel rooms, 7 hotel suites, 24 bungalow rooms.

Observations

One of the fascinating things about the Old Faithful Inn is the visitors' reactions to the structure. Upon being informed of its age, most assume that this massive log and stone lodge was standard fare in a national park circa 1900. They couldn't be more mistaken...

The average park lodging at the turn of the 20th Century consisted of ramshackle, hastily built rectangular structures with undersized rooms and unimaginative designs. Construction was typically shoddy, and fire safety was dreadfully lacking. Most park visitors arrived after hours in a jarring carriage ride. They were hungry and exhausted; the typical road hotels provided large meals, a warm fire, and a very small room -- all sufficient. Larger, more luxurious hotels often presented a Colonial or some revival facade, and overly machined Victorian decor within. While these hotels were a bit rough by today's standards, they hardly looked like rugged lodges.

wapiti inn on the cody road

above, the Wapiti Inn was typical of a traveler's expectations in western park lodging circa 1904. More of a shed than anything else, it was a wood frame structure built on blocks. Note that it was very similar in layout to typical highway motels that would follow a half century later.

The original Upper Geyser Basin Hotel was a typical western stage hotel built in 1884. Poorly constructed, it was in deplorable condition by the time it burned to the ground a decade later. For the next few years a number of would-be concessionaires sought permission to build new hotels -- some were even approved -- but little came of it. Visitors to Upper Geyser Basin either camped, rented tent cabins, or moved on to other sections of the park.

original upper geyser basin hotel

above, the original Upper Geyser Basin Hotel circa 1890. As the ladder in the photo indicates, the building was constantly in need of repairs. Look carefully and the photo reveals bowed rooflines and a sagging porch.

Throughout most of the 1890s, the Yellowstone Park Association had permission to build. Unfortunately it didn't have the will to build. As the concession arm of the Great Northern Railway it had the means to do so, but the railway wasn't convinced that a hotel at Upper Geyser would be profitable. Shortly after the turn of the new century, however, the Railway received permission to build even closer to Old Faithful, and Upper Geyser began to look a lot more attractive. Elsewhere in the park were a series of "European" style grand hotels -- Mammoth and Lake -- that were quite successful. Surely this type of lodging would work at Upper Geyser...

Harry W. Child, President of Yellowstone Park Association, had other ideas. Child became acquainted with a young San Diego architect named Robert Reamer, who had worked on some intensely "American" styles in San Diego. These were Spanish-influenced creations suited to the California coast. Reamer had done some work on the Hotel del Coronado, and together with Child developed an idea for a uniquely American inn. It would combine the towers and angles of the Coronado with the rustic trappings of an Adirondack Lodge, a sort of log cabin on steroids.

The resulting Old Faithful Inn was an immediate sensation.

It was decidedly not what guests expected nor were accustomed to. In the words of author Reau Campbell, who penned the first authoritative guide to Yellowstone, it was both new and old-fashioned...and far superior to the "modern" and pricey hotel at Mammoth Hot Springs:

...it is not to be described on any page, that is impossible; nor are there any photographs that do it justice, but, where's the man that got his money's worth at Mammoth? He is not going to turn back at all now, he is going to stay right here at Old Faithful Inn, and with him are many more inclined to linger in the House of Logs and good living, in the rooms with the little, old-fashioned pane glass windows, with country curtains, where the split-bottom chairs are, and the peg in the log to hang your clothes on. 1

For most visitors, it was the first time they had been at hotel that was a destination unto itself. Mammoth and the Colonial (Lake) Hotel were built on a grand scale, but the furnishings and decor were virtually no different from that found in an eastern city brownstone. At Old Faithful, all of the decor was rustic, but not the "rustic" of a hunting lodge. Each glance about the great "old house" revealed superior quality and craftsmanship in every detail. Add in the natural construction materials, and the overall impression provided such escape from the tedium of everyday life that guests found themselves wanting to stay longer. Very few hotels could make that claim at the time, as Campbell described:

After you have arrived and have for the moment somewhat recovered from the "ohs" and "ahs" of wonder and astonishment...Here is where you will wish to stay all summer...2

early guests at the old faithful inn

above, early guests were eager to be photographed with the incredible new hotel as a backdrop. Note the large dinner bell on the left side of the widow's walk. It is one of the few differences from the modern photo that follows. (Photo below by Acroterion)

the old house today

At the time, the design was described as bold, bizarre, quaint, queer, and generally fantastic. Architect Robert Reamer often joked that he arrived at the outlandish log cabin after consuming too much ale one evening. Reamer did fight a lifelong battle with alcoholism, so whether or not this is true is anybody's guess.

The apologies and explanations were little needed. The structure was such a sensation that it influenced every significant lodge that followed, including the El Tovar, which was already in the design stage. When Louis Hill outlined his plans for Glacier's network of lodges and chalets, he sought a different architectural style, but pointed to the Old Faithful Inn as the benchmark for guest experience. And in the end, the Glacier Park Lodge and Many Glacier Hotel had more similarities to Old Faithful than differences. Even today there are virtually no decisions made about the decor, preservation, or rehabilitation of a western park lodge that cannot point to the direct or indirect influence of Reamer's transforming design.

Original Construction

The foundation of Old House is stone and concrete with a stone veneer. Many of the stones were hewn from exposed bedrock. The weathered portion of these stones were intentionally left untouched and placed facing out, so it appears as if they were more or used as found. In some cases even the lichen was left on the stone, adding to this illusion. But in fact virtually all of the stones were shaped somewhat, and the inward facing side contributes to the structure.

The log walls on the first floor are load-bearing, making it the world's largest true log cabin. The upper stories are a mix of log framing and milled lumber; each of these stories are sheathed with hand-sawn shingles, most are a yard in length. The shingles cover these upper six floors, creating an impression that the building is mostly roof.

Although a seven story building is by definition out of place in a National Park, the effect of a six-story roof negates this impression. Borrowing a page from his California bungalow background, Reamer recognized that a roof with an overhang draws the eye to the ground, tying the structure more naturally to the landscape. Thus by using a combination of overhangs and dormers with a sloping roof, the seven-story building is infinitely less objectionable than it otherwise would be. Reamer perfected the look by varying the size of the dormers, and presenting a variety of angles. Two of the gables, in fact, are completely non-functional other than their contribution to the overall appearance.

Once inside, visitors have a difficult time comprehending what they are seeing. Like Campbell's "ohs and ahs" of a century prior, the superlatives and exclamations cascade as the first timer tries to take it all in. At 92 feet high, the interior is nothing less than mind-boggling. Rustic log stair treads and balustrades seem to climb forever. Above the first floor are two balconies built of logs, from which rise up more logs and trusses, a staircase to a log crow's nest, and finally to a half-log ceiling.

vintage photo inside the old faithful inn

above, a hand-colored photo of the lobby fireplace looks much the same today. Below, the 2nd and 3rd floor balconies are virtually unchanged from opening day. (Photo above by FJ Haynes, below by Laura Soulliere Harrison, NPS)

2nd and 3rd floor balconies old faithful inn

Because the volume of the lobby is so large -- much of it air -- it appears at first as if "there isn't much there." Because the seating nooks and tables are so dwarfed by the structure, it gives that impression. But the fact is that the three floors offer plenty of space and opportunity to explore and appreciate.

third floor guest rooms the old faithful inn

above, entry to third floor guest rooms in the Old House; below, plenty of space on the balcony. Although these photos appear older, they are of recent vintage. (Photos by Laura Soulliere Harrison, NPS)

balcony today at the old faithful inn

Four Significant Changes

Although the initial amazement and overall experience at Old Faithful Inn is little changed over the past century, there have been a series of subtle and sweeping changes through the years. Most of these are minor in nature, such as a ground floor guest room removed in favor of a gift shop, etc., and these are addressed as thoroughly as possible in the timeline above. But there are four changes that are worthy of further discussion, in order to gain a better understanding of the present Old Faithful Inn.

The timing of the construction coincided with the ascent of the automobile. In the years that followed more and more Americans found it easier to travel. This in spite of the dreadful condition of most roads, and the fact that it was virtually impossible for the average motorist to reach Yellowstone in the early years. But as it became easier to get to and from the rails, travel increased. As early as 1910 it was clear that the Old Faithful Inn was strained to capacity, and as the old "shack" hotels collapsed or burned, more and more visitors sought lodging. In some ways the Old Faithful Inn hastened the demise of the inferior hotels, as many travelers made plans based on overnighting there, leaving others empty and now off the beaten path.

Thus in 1913 construction began on the 100-room East Wing. Externally it is somewhat cohesive with the Old House; internally it lacks even that fleeting charm. It is important to remember that the grandest hotel rooms were significantly smaller at that time, and the room was thought to have minimal importance versus the sights outside. With a complete roster of evening activities, card games, dining and entertainment, guests were expected to spend little time in the room. The wing was connected to the Inn proper by a two-story corridor, which is virtually the same today.

1913 east wing the old faithful inn

Above, the East Wing, constructed 1913-14. Photo by Laura Soulliere Harrison, NPS. Below, a typical room in the east wing after 1993 renovation. Photo by Jim Peaco, NPS.

east wing room

Following this addition, the capcity of the Inn was sufficient for a few years. But as the automobile gained ground, "highways" began to take shape, and Americans were on the move. By the mid 1920s, motorists began to collect National Park paid entry stickers on their front windshields. These were worn as a sort of badge of honor. The NPS worked with the National Geographic Society to promote park attendance, which also contributed to increased visitors. The economy was percolating nicely, and it wasn't too long before the Old Faithful Inn again found its resources strained.

These factors set the stage in 1927 for the second -- and the third -- significant changes to the Inn structure.

The first of the 1927 changes was a major alteration to the very front of the hotel. Interestingly enough, most visitors didn't really notice. To this day many people need to have the change pointed out before they "see" it.

The change was made to the porte-cochere and the viewing balcony. The covered driveway was choked with vehicles of all sorts by the mid-1920s, and it needed to be expanded. The balcony too was crowded at geyser viewing times, leaving many guests straining to see over the person in front.

The solution was simply to enlarge both by extending them forward. The problem was the massive roof couldn't accommodate an expansion without an extremely costly alteration, not to mention that it would over-inflate the structure and destroy some of its charm. So the extension proceeded -- but the roof was left as-is. Thus the porte-cochere and the viewing balcony were both doubled, but the new section of the viewing balcony was not covered. While some grumblings were made about the aesthetic impact, it was soon agreed that the design was sound, the addition was cohesive with the original, and that the appearance was not negatively impacted.

original porte cochere at the old faithful inn

expanded porte cochere at old faithful inn

These vintage postcards provide a good visual reference of the "before and after" porte-cochere extension. Top is the original appearance, 1904-1927, and the bottom postcard shows the appearance since the addition. The wood railings above the front half of the porte-cochere form the open air viewing balcony. Photos by FJ Haynes.

The problem of guest capacity was addressed at the same time, which gave rise to the third significant change to the Inn. Like the East Wing before it, the West Wing would provide hundreds of new guest rooms but very little in-room charm.

The Y-shaped 4-story West Wing has a slightly more agreeable facade, making use of faux top-floor dormers and a mansard shingle roofline. Both are purely decorative; the structure is a series of box-shaped structures. An overhang at the second story breaks up the visual monotony, and it makes more liberal use of logs, so all in all it presents a more cohesive outward appearance than its sibling on the east side. It has some interior charm thanks to a two-story lobby-like connector to the Old House, but it more or less ends there.

1927 west wing the old faithful inn

above, the West Wing, constructed 1927. Photo by Laura Soulliere Harrison, NPS.

The Inn saw a series of minor changes over the next few decades, but nothing overly important until the fourth significant event in 1959. Unlike the previous three, this one had nothing to do with changing demographics, and everything to do with the Inn's location: Earthquake.

Late evening August 17, 1959 was just like any other at Old Faithful Inn; most guests had turned in but a few were fighting the night, quietly sipping drinks, reading, or enjoying a card game in the various corners of the lobby and balconies. At 11:37 it all changed when a 7.5 magnitude earthquake rocked the region. The epicenter was just a few miles west, and the Old House swayed wildly.

The dining room fireplace collapsed, the roof buckled and shed shingles, and bricks fell within the flues of the main lobby chimney. Fortunately the dining room was long empty; the only human toll was lost sleep and a bit of shock as the Inn was evacuated.

The building itself still bears the brunt of the tremor. Four of the fireplace flues were hopelessly blocked and remain unusable. But the most unfortunate aftermath is that the upper structure of the lobby was twisted and shifted. The roof was repaired quickly, but the structure remains unstable. So while the lower rooms and balconies are all fine, the crow's nest and widow's walk are now off-limits to all but maintenance personnel. It is a harrowing reminder that even the most beloved man-made structures have but a brief existence in the geological timeline.

staircases are closed above the third floor in the lobby

above, the once-public staircases above the third floor have been closed since the 1959 earthquake. Photo by Laura Soulliere Harrison, NPS.

The Experience

Authentic Old Faithful

If you visit Old Faithful Inn with the expectations of a modern resort, you will be sadly disappointed. The experience is as near to the original as possible, albeit with modern linens and amenities.

Although the rooms in the Old House have unique charms, they can be subject to noise from the lobby as well as other rooms. And in some cases these rooms have shared baths, which is either suitable -- or not, depending on your personal preferences. Rooms in the wings have little charm and sometimes a lengthy walk, and are generally a let down after the joys of the main lobby area.

sitting room between east wing and old house

Above, the sitting room between the East Wing and the Old House at Old Faithful Inn. Below, one of the typical rooms in Old House. Photos by Jim Peaco, NPS.

guest room in the old house

Thus it is important to understand that the value and quality experience at the Old Faithful Inn will not be found in your guest room. It is found in the quiet glass of wine in a corner of the balcony, in a new acquaintance by the fireplace, or an after dinner stroll among the geysers. As in any of the grand National Park Lodges, the less time spent in the room, the better.

original decor in guest room at the old faithful inn

above, a hand-colored photo depicts the original decor in the Old House section of Old Faithful Inn. The recent NPS photo below shows the current appearance of a similar room, restored as closely as possible to the original decor and furnishings. (Photo above by FJ Haynes, below by Laura Soulliere Harrison, NPS)

guest room in old house section of old faithful inn

Now this is not to say that the rooms are unpleasant; far from it. The cleanliness and quality of the appointments are excellent. Service in the building may be slow at busy times, but it is generally excellent considering the volume of people that pass through the doors of the Old Faithful Inn.

To summarize the experience, we'll borrow yet again from Reau Campbell, describing his departure from the Old House:

Leaving Old Faithful Inn, always regretfully, the stages come up to the door...leaving the covered portal they swing around the circle in front, as if to give you a last, lingering look at the prettiest hotel in the world...3

Classification

Criterion Classification I

The Old Faithful Inn exemplifies the ultimate standard for a National Park Lodge. It is visually compelling, historically significant, architecturally unique and an integral part of the Yellowstone experience. The design and construction are outstanding, and forever altered the course of lodging in America's National Parks. For these reasons and for the fact that it was the first to establish this standard, the Old Faithful Inn is classified in the highest tier -- Criterion Classification I -- by the National Park Lodge Architecture Preservation Society.

1 Campbell, Reau Campbell's New Revised Complete Guide and Descriptive Book of the Yellowstone National Park 1909 H.F. Klamer, Yellowstone Park, WY, p. 112

2 Ibid, p. 157

3 Ibid, p. 115

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exterior work

the sight of scaffolding is a necessary evil to maintain the 100+ year old cabin. Photo by Garrett Rock.

Worth Protecting

While the natural resources were left to the whims of chance during the North Fork Fire of 1988, there was one manmade feature that firefighters sought to protect above all others. The natural resources, as we learned, recovered quickly. The summer of '88 marked a significant change in the way fires are handled in western parks. NPS photo





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